The Clarity of Scripture

December 15, 2019 Preacher: Luis A. Cardenas Series: Doctrine

Topic: English

Celebrating Christmas is about celebrating the incarnation. God became a man. Galatians 4:4 says: “When the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his Son, born of woman, born under the law.”

John 1:14 tells us that “the Word became flesh and dwelt among us.

Hebrews 2:14, speaking of our relationship with Jesus, says: “Since therefore [we] the children share in flesh and blood, he himself [Jesus] likewise partook of the same things.”

Last week we sang the Christmas hymn “Hark! The Herald Angles Sing,” and one of the verses says “Christ, by highest heav’n adored / Christ, the everlasting Lord / Late in time behold Him come / offspring of the virgin’s womb / Veiled in flesh, the Godhead see / Hail th’incarnate Deity / Pleased, as man, with men to dwell / Jesus, our Emmanuel.”

The story of Christmas is that God eternal came to earth. He came to live with us. Why? There are several ways to answer that questions. But for today, the answer I want to point out is that He came to make God known. That’s part of what we mean when we refer to Jesus as the Word of God. Words are how we express ourselves, and Jesus is the perfect self-expression of God. He is the revelation of God.

Jesus coming to the earth serves as a tremendous evidence and encouragement that God wants you to know Him. He wants to relate to us.

Some people in the world might be easy for you to relate to. Others, not so much. What makes it easy to connect to someone relationally? Shared experiences help. But even more important is a shared language, right?

Occasionally, at a pastors’ meetings, I will meet Chinese or Korean pastors who speak very little English or Spanish. And that’s frustrating for me. I wish I could speak their language. I wish I could relate to and communicate with them better.

Thinking along those line, and in terms of our relationship with God, we could say this: God speaks our language. God speaks our language. God can relate to you. And you can relate with God.

The relational connection that was expressed through Jesus, the living Word of God, is still expressed today in the written word of God, the Bible. This book is what God gave us so that we would know Him. God gave us access to Himself. This is His clear word to us.

The fancy theological term for the clarity of Scripture is perspicuity of Scripture, and that’s what I want to talk about today. Like I said, this will be less of a sermon and more of a theology lesson, but it’s important and very practical for your life and for those you minister to.

As we look at this topic of the clarity of Scripture, I’m going to divide our time into 4 headings. First, we are going to define the doctrine. What does it mean? Then we are going to clarify the doctrine. We need to make some qualifications. I want to explain what the doctrine does NOT mean. Thirdly, we’ll support the doctrine. So, how do we make a case for this? And lastly, we’ll apply the doctrine. That’s our outline for today: Define, clarify, support, and apply.

Let’s start with a definition. What does the doctrine of clarity mean? What do we mean when we talk about the clarity of Scripture?

When we say that we believe in the clarity of Scripture, we mean that the message of the Bible is clear enough to guide a person to salvation and to a life that honors God. That’s what this doctrine teaches. The message of the Bible is clear enough to guide a person to salvation and to a life that honors God.

That means that the average person can understand what the Bible says. In other words, you and God do speak the same language. God can be understood. The Bible has been written in a way that an ordinary person can understand what it says.

God, who created all human language, has written down His message to us in human language. And even though the original language was Hebrew or Aramaic or Greek, we have translations today that give it to us in our own language. To the extent that you speak or understand the language of your Bible, you will be able to understand it’s message.

When the New Testament was written, this was the understanding of the church. Christians hadn’t crystallized the doctrine, but it’s what they believed. God’s written word, just like His living word, was for everyone.

But as the centuries progressed that view started to change. The biggest attack came from the Roman Catholic Church, which began to teach that the average person couldn’t understand God’s word on his own. You needed some kind of authority outside of the Bible. And so, added to the authority of the Bible, they told the people that they also needed the authority of the church. That helped make sure the church stayed in control.

There is a movie entitled God’s Outlaw. It’s the story of William Tyndale who gave his life to produce an English translation of the Bible for the people. In the most famous scene, which is taken from Tyndale’s biography, a Catholic scholar is at the table with Tyndale. And the scholar says, “The Spirit teaches us the truth, through the church.” And Tyndale points out the contradictions even in the teachers of the church. And he asks him, “How can we know right from wrong, but by God’s word?”

Someone else at the table responds, “But without the help of doctors, God’s word is too hard to understand.”

Tyndale asks, “By what should we measure the yardstick of Scripture?” And the scholar answers, “By the Pope! The Pope whom God has set on earth. The Pope, through whom God administers truth and justice. The Pope! The Pope!”

“And what if the Pope were at variance with God’s laws?” asks Tyndale. “Then it were better to do without God’s law’s than the Pope’s.” Tyndale’s famous reply was this: “I defy the Pope and all his laws. And if God spares my life, I will see to it that a plowboy shall know more of the Scriptures than you do.”

In 1526, Tyndale produces the first-ever English translation from the Greek New Testament. And it changed Europe.

It really wasn’t until the Reformation that the people started to be pulled back to the doctrine of the clarity of God’s word. The people began to realize that they had direct access to God’s word. They weren’t dependent on some kind of middleman telling them what God had said. They could see it or hear it for themselves.

Now, when we say that Scripture is clear, we need to qualify that a little bit. It needs a little more explanation. And that brings us to our next section: clarifying the doctrine. What does the doctrine NOT mean? What aren’t we saying?

First of all, we’re not saying that the message of Christianity is mindless or superficial. Just because something is clear, doesn’t mean that it lacks depth. The message of Christ is not like the little cardboard books my two-year old plays with. The message of Jesus is simple enough for a child to understand, but there is a richness and depth so that the greatest mind can study it forever. And many men and women have done just that.

This leads us to a second qualification: The doctrine of the clarity of Scripture doesn’t mean that we won’t benefit from the help of others. In a broad sense, we benefit from one another as the body of Christ. We encourage one another and teach one another. We’re actually commanded to do that. More specifically, Christ has gifted pastors and teachers to the church. And we will benefit from the teachers of our own day and the teachers of the past. That’s why pastor will look at commentaries—to benefit from others who have dedicated themselves to studying God’s word.

Let me give you a third clarification. The clarity of Scripture does not mean it’s a superficial book. And it doesn’t mean we won’t benefit from others. And thirdly, it does not mean that Scripture is always as specific or as clear as we’d like. Again, the Scriptures are clear enough to convey what God wants us to know, but that doesn’t’ mean they are always as precise, or as specific, as we’d like them to be.

For example, if you asked me where I lived, I could just say “Pico Rivera.” That’s a clear answer. But I didn’t give you my exact address. It’s not as specific as you might have wanted.

That’s what happens in the Bible sometimes, too. We wish we had more clarity on some things, like prophecy for example, but that doesn’t mean that the message as a whole is unclear. Again, going back to our definition, the Bible is clear enough to guide us into salvation and into a life that honors God.

But there are still going to be passages that bring an element of mystery or leave us with unanswered questions. Go with me, if you would, to 1 Peter 1:10-12. First Peter 1:10-12. This is a New Testament passage talking about the Old Testament prophets. They had the prophecies, but they didn’t exactly know how it all fit together.

It says this: Concerning this salvation, the prophets who prophesied about the grace that was to be yours searched and inquired carefully, 11inquiring what person or time the Spirit of Christ in them was indicating when he predicted the sufferings of Christ and the subsequent glories. 12It was revealed to them that they were serving not themselves but you, in the things that have now been announced to you through those who preached the good news to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven, things into which angels long to look.

We’re on the other side of Christ’s coming, so we know how to reconcile the idea of a suffering Messiah and a glorified King. There are two comings; not one. Jesus came the first time in humility. He will come a second time in glory.

Now, even with that information, there are still elements of theology and prophecy where our understanding isn’t perfectly specific.

Go with me to the end of 2 Peter. That’s the next book and the final chapter. Second Peter chapter 3. Peter is talking about the end times. He’s talking about the destruction of the earth and then he talks about Paul’s letters. And notice what he says to the believers in verses 14-16.

Therefore, beloved, since you are waiting for these, be diligent to be found by him without spot or blemish, and at peace. 15And count the patience of our Lord as salvation, just as our beloved brother Paul also wrote to you according to the wisdom given him, 16as he does in all his letters when he speaks in them of these matters. There are some things in them that are hard to understand, which the ignorant and unstable twist to their own destruction, as they do the other Scriptures.

Besides just encouraging his readers, Peter does a couple things. One, he equates Paul’s writings with Scripture. And second, he admits that some things in them are hard to understand. He doesn’t say they’re impossible, but he says they are difficult.

Just like with any conversation with someone else, sometimes it takes an extra effort to put away the distractions and follow along with what they’re saying. And sometimes, the things they’re talking about aren’t very easy to follow. Right? So, keep that clarification in mind. The Bible is clear enough for salvation and godliness, but there will be some areas that are not as precise as we’d like.

And this connects to one final qualification to make. Saying that the Bible is clear does not mean that it can’t be misinterpreted or rejected. Different groups in history have come to different conclusions about important doctrines. That’s how we get heresy. And even if we can agree on what the Bible teaches, that doesn’t’ mean everyone will accept it.

Again, the Bible is clear enough to guide someone to salvation and into spiritual growth, but that assumes that the person actually wants to follow God.

Many people, the majority in fact, will reject the message of the Bible. And that’s because, even though the message of the Bible is simple, God has given us some requirements. You have to be receptive to the message.

Just to use a simple example from life, when a child or a teenager disobeys or ignores you, the reason they didn’t do what you asked is not always that the instruction wasn’t clear enough, right? You might have given a perfectly clear instruction, but the kid just wasn’t listening, or he didn’t want to listen. Clarity does not guarantee agreement or a full understanding.

You need to think about that as you evangelize, as you talk to people about the real meaning of Christmas or life and death. Go with me to First Corinthians chapter 2. This will be familiar to a lot of you.

First Corinthians 2:14—The natural person does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are folly to him, and he is not able to understand them because they are spiritually discerned.

When it says “they can’t understand,” it doesn’t mean they can’t learn the facts. Many non-Christians understand what the Bible says, in terms of the facts. But it means they can’t make the connection between what it’s saying and how to apply it to life. They don’t know the true meaning of the Bible, because they don’t know Jesus.

At the end of Second Corinthians 3, Paul says that for the unbelievers, it’s like they have a veil over their eyes and their hearts. Their minds are hardened. They are blinded by Satan, it says, so that they cannot see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God.

But, when someone turns to Christ, the Bible says that veil is lifted. And God shines in our hearts the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Christ. That’s the miracle of regeneration. It’s a new birth. And it gives us a desire and an ability to learn from God’s word.

Let me repeat the definition. When we say the Bible is clear, we mean that its message is clear enough to guide a person to salvation and to a life that honors God, if they so desire.

In 2 Timothy 3:15, Paul says, “From childhood you have been acquainted with the sacred writings, which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus.

That’s what the Bible does. It leads you to Jesus Christ, if you’re willing to pursue it.

Let’s move on, now, to our next heading. First, we defined the doctrine. Then we clarified the doctrine. Now, we’re going to support the doctrine. This is so important. We don’t just want to say things because we’d like them to be true. We need to make a case biblically.

And if you’re talking to someone who really believes that we are all supposed to be dependent on some other authority to interpret the Bible for us, these are the kinds of arguments you can make to defend the doctrine.

One of the ways to defend the Bible’s clarity is by using the nature of Scripture. The nature of Scripture. Anybody who takes the Bible seriously, will accept that is necessary and sufficient and authoritative and absolutely true. Well, how can the Bible be those things if it’s not clear? It just wouldn’t make sense.

It would be ridiculous for us to say that the Bible is our authority, but we don’t really know what it means or what it’s saying. Or, how can we say that all we need for spiritual life and health is found in the Bible, if we can’t understand what it’s saying. Do you understand that argument?

One of the more well-known passages about the Bible comes from Isaiah chapter 55. You can turn there if you like. Isaiah is talking to the people about repentance and about forgiveness. And he’s telling the people about God’s faithfulness.

Look at Isaiah 55:10-11—For as the rain and the snow come down from heaven and do not return there but water the earth, making it bring forth and sprout, giving seed to the sower and bread to the eater, so shall my word be that goes out from my mouth; it shall not return to me empty, but it shall accomplish that which I purpose, and shall succeed in the thing for which I sent it.

God’s word will always accomplish what God intends for it to accomplish. How could God’s word be successful in its purpose toward us, if we had no ability to understand it on our own? You wouldn’t need the word in that case. God could just do what He wanted to do. But that’s not how God chose to operate. He sends us His word. So, the clarity of Scripture is very closely connected to its other attributes.

Here’s a second defense for the clarity of Scripture: the nature of God. The nature of God. God is described in the Bible as light, for example in 1 John 1:5. To say that God is light is to say that He is perfectly holy, as opposed to having any trace of evil, but it also means that He is a God who reveals. Light exposes. Light reveals. Darkness obscures. Darkness covers up.

The very purpose of God’s revelation is to make Himself known, right? That’s one of the distinctions of Christianity. If you don’t believe God wants you to know Him, you might be an agnostic or a deist. But the message of Christmas, and the message of the Bible, is that God has reached out to us.

If God wanted to make Himself known, and if He wanted to bring us into an intimate personal relationship with Him, He would not have given us a message that we couldn’t understand. That would be like sending Jesus and having Him speak only gibberish.

God doesn’t just want us to know facts. He wants us to know Him deeply and personally. So, He has spoken clearly to us in His Son and in His word. That’s God’s nature.

I suppose someone could argue that God wants to know us, but He just isn’t very good at communicating with us. That’s ridiculous too!

Even a dog and a cat and a baby have the ability to tell you they’re hungry, or they have to use the bathroom. How could the infinitely powerful God not be able to communicate a message clearly to us?

So, to say the Bible isn’t clear is to say that either God didn’t want to relate to us intimately, or that He was incapable of it. And neither of those are true.

He is all powerful. And as the almighty God, He has condescended to us to make Himself known to us. He made Himself known in Jesus Christ, and now He makes Himself known through the Scriptures.

Another part of God’s nature to keep in mind is His judgment. God will hold us all accountable for our life, right? All Christians will agree to that. Well, the fact that He will hold us accountable implies that we can understand His message. How cruel would it be to say that God is going to judge us by a standard that we aren’t all able to know or figure out? It would be like being forced to play a game without knowing the rules. And you keep getting penalized. Doesn’t make sense.

So we can support the clarity of Scripture by appealing to the nature of Scripture itself or by appealing to the nature of God.

Let me give you a third support for the doctrine of Scripture’s clarity, and that is: the expectation to hear. The expectation to hear.

In the Bible, you never ever hear of God or Jesus saying to someone, “Oh well, don’t worry about that part of the Bible, that’s not a very clear passage.” They never say that. In the Bible, the expectation of God is that everyone who hears the message would understand it.

In Deuteronomy 6, we have the famous words of God to Israel: “Hear, O Israel! The Lord our God, the Lord is one.” And if you go back and look at what’s happening there, you’ll see that all Israel is gathered. This was a message for everyone. They were all called to hear.

And shortly after, there’s the instruction to teach these things diligently to the children. Teach them all the time. The message of God to Israel was a message He intended to be taught to children as well. It was that clear.

You also have repeated references in Psalms and Proverbs to “the simple.” That’s talking about young people, or naïve people—people that don’t have understanding. Even they can understand the Bible.

Psalm 19:7 says, “The testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple.” 

Psalm 119:130—The unfolding of your words gives light; it imparts understanding to the simple.

Proverbs 1:4 says the book gives prudence to the simple. Wisdom calls to them. It invites them to listen, to gain understanding.

Proverbs 8:5 gives the invitation: O simple ones, learn prudence; O fools, learn sense.

By the time Jesus comes on the scene in the New Testament, He rebukes the people by saying, “Have you not read?” That phrase is recorded 7 times in the gospels. “Have you not read?” Jesus expected that those He spoke to understood what the Bible said.

Lastly, you have the same kind of expectation in the letters of the New Testament. When Paul or Peter wrote a letter, he expected it to be read in front of the whole church.

And when Paul writes to the Colossians and the Ephesians. He doesn’t even say, “Parents, tell your kids to obey you.” He says, “Children, obey your parents.” He knew the entire church would hear the message and understand it, and that included the children. God’s message can be understood, even by a child, if they’re paying attention. And God expects them to hear.

One last passage we could use here is First Corinthians 10. Look at that with me. Paul is writing to a largely Gentile church, in the middle of a major metropolitan city, and yet he reminds them about what happened with the Israelites in the wilderness 1,500 years before.

Paul is warning the church about the dangers of external faith without true love for Christ. And he reminds them about the judgment of God in the wilderness on a grumbling nation. And verse 6 says, “Now these things took place as examples for us, that we might not desire evil as they did.” And he goes on to tell them: “Don’t be idolaters… Don’t get caught up in sexual immorality… don’t put Christ to the test. 

There is a major time and cultural difference between the Israelites in the wilderness and the believers in Corinth, but his assumption is they still understand the story. They still get the point. And we could say the same for us today. No matter how much time has passed, or how different our culture is, the Scripture is clear, and God expects us all to hear its message.

Let me have you turn to one final passage, and this will be the final line of support we’ll look at today for the clarity of Scripture. Let’s call this final category “the enablement of God.” So we’ve got the nature of Scripture, the nature of God, the expectation to hear, and the enablement of God.

Look with me at First John chapter 2. In this chapter, we’re dealing with a church that had seen people walk away from the true faith. They gave in to these ideas that Jesus wasn’t really God in human flesh. And what that led to was the people thinking, “Can that happen to me? Can I be lured away by a false teacher?”

That’s a very important question. These false teachers were coming saying, “You see, you only had a basic understanding the Bible. What you need is to learn the real truth. You need the advanced courses of theology.” And they were luring people away from the church.

Is that true? Is there some kind of hidden knowledge in Christianity? Is there something we’re missing if we just read the Bible for ourselves?

Look at 1 John 2:18-20—Children, it is the last hour, and as you have heard that antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have come. Therefore we know that it is the last hour. 19They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would have continued with us. But they went out, that it might become plain that they all are not of us.

So, again, is that going to happen to the rest of us too? Are we going to be deceived? Verse 20—But you have been anointed by the Holy One, and you all have knowledge.

That anointing is the Holy Spirit, who teaches us the truths of the faith. He confirms the truth. He enables us to understand.

Skip down to verse 26—I write these things to you about those who are trying to deceive you. 27But the anointing that you received from him abides in you, and you have no need that anyone should teach you. But as his anointing teaches you about everything, and is true, and is no lie--just as it has taught you, abide in him.

Like I said earlier, that doesn’t mean we don’t benefit form teachers, or that we shouldn’t sit under them in the church. But what it means is that we don’t need people teaching us “extra things,” teachings that aren’t already in the Bible, given by Jesus to the Apostles.

You know, when I’m preaching on Sundays, one of the words I hear myself saying is “look.” Look down at this verse. Look down at that verse. I say that because I want you to know that I’m not teaching anything that isn’t already there. I’m just explaining what it says.

My hope is that, every Sunday, you walk away having learned the Bible and, I trust, amazed at the power and truth and heart of God. How does that happen? Why does it happen? It happens because, if you’re a believer, the Spirit of God is illuminating you. He’s teaching you. He’s confirming the message. He’s leading us in the path of truth.

Okay? I hope that gives you a very firm understanding and foundation regarding the doctrine of the clarity of Scripture. And before we close, I want us all to consider the practical expressions of those truths.

This is our final heading for today. How do we apply this doctrine to our lives?

This should come as no surprise for you. You apply this doctrine, number 1, by reading the Bible. Read your Bible. If God speaks your language, if God wants you to understand Him, then our response is to listen, and to learn to listen well. We can listen in our Bible reading, and we can listen in a sermon. But do all you can to absorb God’s truth into your life.

In the context of the church, and specifically addressing a church leader, 1 Timothy 4 says: Devote yourself to the public reading of Scripture, to exhortation, to teaching. This is to be the focus of our gatherings. We sing the word. We pray the word. We study the word.

If you really want to learn from God’s word, don’t just pick one or two passage to read throughout the day. Learn to read the Bible in its context. Read books from start to finish so that you understand the flow of what’s happening and what’s being said. And don’t be afraid or intimidated by what some people call the harder books. Read Hebrews. Read Jeremiah. Read Revelation.

What makes those books hard is the references to things we don’t know a lot about. But the words themselves aren’t difficult. When it says in Revelation that a third of the creatures in the sea die, and a third of the ships are destroyed, what does that mean? It means a third of the creatures in the sea die, and a third of the ships are destroyed. That’s not unclear. You might want more specifics, but what’s there isn’t unclear.

If you want more help, talk to someone, and find a good resource, like a Bible Dictionary, which is so helpful. But the bottom line is, read your Bible. Don’t be intimidated by this book. If you’re seeking God, He will help you, even if you don’t understand everything you read. Just set aside some quiet time, and read it with a humble heart.

Don’t be intimidated by any expert you see on TV or hear the radio saying: “This is too complex. We can’t really know what it means.” People who say that have never read it. Just read your Bible, and see what it says for yourself.

Application principle number 2 is this: After you read your Bible, reread your Bible. Reread your Bible. Those of you who’ve ever painted know how much difference a second coat makes, right? Those of you with children or a husband know it too. We like to hear things more than once. So read your Bible again.

Sometimes, something isn’t as clear as you’d like. But once you finish reading the book, you go back and read it again, and it starts making more sense. It’s like watching a movie a second time. You see more of the connections. Keep reading your Bible. You don’t have to wait until January 1 to get started on a new reading plan. Choose what you want to do, and follow through with it.

Here’s a third way you apply this doctrine: Learn good Bible study principles. Learn good Bible study principles. The fancy term for that is hermeneutics. There are rules for language, aren’t there? There are rules for how to communicate and interpret. And organizing those principles helps us interpret the Bible better.

This is my chance to plug next year’s first class. Starting on January 19, there will be a six-week class intended to get you more comfortable studying your Bible. And if you can’t make it, if you’re going to be on vacation or something, we’re going to teach it again. The exact same class will be taught six weeks in a row starting on March 1. So you have two opportunities to take the class.

And if you think, “Oh, I don’t do well with a class! I’m not a fast learner!” That’s okay too. You can take the class twice. No shame in that either.

Application number 4: Get a good translation. By “good” I mean one that is trustworthy and readable. Get a good translation. Some of you don’t have a physical Bible. You use the Bible on your phones. Well, apart from the distractions that poses, you need to make sure you get a good translation. Some years back, my brother said that a group of youth were all using the King James Version, because it was free.

Well, some people have no idea what the King James is saying. It’s old English. And while it sounds beautiful to some people. To others, it makes no sense.

If you’re reading a King James Bible, and it’s tough to understand, the problem isn’t God, it’s your translation. The Bible was written in everyday, common language. We call that Koine Greek, common Greek. So, find a translation that’s at your level.

According to the publishers, the New American Standard is aiming for a reading level of grade 11. ESV is at grade 10. The Christian Standard Bible, formerly the Holman Christian Standard Bible says 7th grade. The New Living is 6th grade. New Century is listed at 3rd grade. So, find one that you can read.

For young children, my personal preference is to aim higher, because they’re still learning. And even if a translation seems beyond their level, I think it can help them develop good language skills.

But if school is behind you, or if English is your second language, find one that’s appropriate for you. Find one you’re comfortable with.

Lastly, and this will be our final point for today, you can apply the doctrine of Scriptures clarity by proclaiming it to others. This is not a secret message. This is not some kind of secret code intended for a super elite group. God intended this message for the world, for everybody.

We don’t need to shy away from it. This isn’t like tutoring someone in math or history or philosophy. This is the simple, straightforward message of God. Don’t ever feel like you’re not equipped to tell or someone else is not equipped enough to receive the message of the Bible.

I’ll take this time to plug the second class we’ll be offering next year. This is after the Bible study class. We’ll be offering a class on personal evangelism. And I’m excited about the opportunities for growth. We can all improve in sharing God’s truth with other. And we shouldn’t feel inadequate for it.

One of the tragedies of our time is that even though we’ve got so many people are out there making a big deal about Protestant theology, many of them live like practical Roman Catholics. They say they’re Protestants, but they live like Catholics.

Don’t do that. That can happen with legalism, but it can also happen with the way we view our Bibles. God has spoken to us clearly in His word. God speaks your language. And He invites you to open the word, see what He has said, and proclaim it to others.

For centuries, the common people were denied access to God’s word. Men and women died because they wanted to give people access to God’s word in their own language. Don’t let their sacrifice be a waste. And don’t ignore the great treasure God has given us.

God has given us His written word, so that we might know Him through His living word, our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.

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